A Framework for Assessing and Combining Evidence for the Carcinogenicity of Environmental Agents: A Prototype System

Dec. 1996 ($30.00)

This report describes the development and implementation of a methodological framework and prototype system for assessing and combining evidence of carcinogenicity obtained from epidemiological and bioassay studies. The methodology and instruments were designed to address the problem of potential carcinogenicity of power-frequency electromagnetic fields. The methodology is deliberately generic in approach. This attribute, and the overall functionality, are demonstrated in the retrospective case study application to the carcinogenicity of benzene. The report contains discussion of issues and concerns in current carcinogen hazard identification schemes. Technical appendices are available upon request.

Accident Analysis for the St. Lawrence River Channel

June 1999 ($10.00)

An analysis of the MARSIS accident data for the St. Lawrence River was performed for GeoInfo Solutions. The objectives of the analysis were: to develop the risk profile of the river, especially with respect to groundings, collisions, and strikings involving tankers, merchant and passenger vessels; to obtain accident rates for specific sections of the river for comparison to the Design for Minimum Safety (DMS) results and validation of the DMS methodology; and to focus on accidents related specifically to shiphanding and positioning in the river related to the provision of aids to navigation. The MARSIS database for all of Canada for the period 1975-1997 was used as the base data.

Air Pollution and Public Health: A Guidance Document for Risk Managers

May 2007 ($50.00)

This Guidance Document is a reference for air quality policy-makers and managers providing state of the art, evidence-based information on key determinants of air quality management decisions. The Document reflects the findings of the five annual meetings of the NERAM (Network for Environmental Risk Assessment and Management) International Colloquium Series on Air Quality Management (2001-2006), as well as the results of supporting international research. The topics covered in the Guidance Document reflect critical science and policy aspects of air quality risk management. Key messages highlighting policy-relevant findings of the science on health effects (Chapter 2), air quality emissions, measurement and modeling (Chapter 3), air quality management interventions (Chapter 4), and clean air policy challenges and opportunities (Chapter 5).


Arctic Tanker Risk Assessment - Phase 3

April 1996 ($10.00)

The report documents IRR's progress under Task 5 (Model Calibration & Preliminary Assessment) and Task 7 (Develop Risk Control of Prototype Software & Prototype Evaluation) of a sub-contract with Canarctic Shipping Company Ltd. The ATRA risk analysis model proposed in the Milestone II report was a series of model components that were incorporated by Canarctic into a more comprehensive model, i.e., a route planning model based on a fault tree representation. Preliminary review of the prototype fault tree software indicated that the fault tree approach is feasible.

Assessing the Environmental Effects of Disposal Alternatives for Household Batteries

Feb. 1992 ($20.00)

The Canadian Battery Manufacturer's Association funded IRR to undertake an independent investigation into the impacts of used household battery disposal and management practices on the environment, including an evaluation of the potential risks associated with the identified options. This report discusses the issues relating to used dry-cell battery disposal practices, their potential impacts on the environment, the potential risks to humans, and offers recommendations for what is considered as acceptable disposal practices for used household batteries.

Assessing the Risks of Transporting Dangerous Goods by Truck and Rail - Part 1 & Part 2

Jul. 1989 & Sep. 1988 ($20.00)

Part 1 of this study consisted of a detailed examination of accidents, and a determination of accident rates using log-linear models. The accident rates for truck and rail were compared along a transportation corridor (Sarnia to Toronto), as were the consequences of a spill of a representative dangerous commodity (liquefied petroleum gas) originating from those transportation modes. Part 2, a continuation of Part 1, looks in greater depth at accident consequences.

Basic Frameworks for Risk Management

March 2003 ($25.00)

Prepared for: The Ontario Ministry of the Environment.
Based on: NERAM Risk Management Seminar " Basic Frameworks for Risk Management" December 6,2001.


Benchmark Framework for Risk Management

November 2001 ($20.00)

The risk management benchmark framework was developed by NERAM. It is a generic framework that was developed as a result of practical applications of risk assessment and management over the last 20 years, in a variety of fields, including: transport, blood systems, waste disposal, health, climate change, ISO and CSA risk "standards," and marine navigation. It is intended to be a middle-of-the-road, centralist formualtion of the existing frameworks for risk management.

Benchmark Risks for Use in Risk Assessment

January 1991 ($20.00)

This report, conducted for Health and Welfare Canada provides a methodology for evaluating the magnitude of various risks through comparison to reference risk values for common events or "benchmark risks" in Canada. It enables new risks to be compared and understood on a scale illustrating existing risks in order to be able to draw conclusions of relative risk. The scales use "loss of life expectancy" (LLE) or the approximate measure of LLE "days of life lost" (DLL), based on Statistics Canada Life Tables as the units of measurement.

Comparative Assessment of Risk Model Estimates for the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail

May 1993 ($20.00)

This report documents the major results and conclusions of a transportation corridor exercise carried out as part of the International Consensus Conference on the Risks of Transporting Dangerous Goods held in Toronto, April 6-9, 1992. In this exercise, various quantitative risk analysis models were applied to a common transport problem involving the bulk shipment of chlorine, LPG and gasoline by road and rail along predefined routes.

Country Foods: Benefits and Risks - A Resource Document for Nunavik and Labrador

August 1999 ($25.00)

The purpose of this document is to assist front-line communicators in Nunavik and Labrador in providing clear information to Northerners on the benefits and risks of country food diets. The report provides, in fact sheet format, plain language results of an Eco-Research project on the Health and Social Issues of Environmental Contaminants in Nunavik and Labrador (Avativut/Ilusivut research program) and other Northern nutrition and contaminants research. The report was developed in collaboration with health and environment officials in these two regions and the scientists involved in the Eco-Research program. The report is the second publication of the Benefit-Risk Management research project. See Inuit Perspectives on Environmental Contaminants.

Critical Review of the Risk Analysis Report of the St. Lawrence Pipeline

October 1993 ($10.00)

This report, commissioned by the Québec Ministry of the Environment, documents the critical review of the report titled "Risk Analysis, St. Lawrence Pipeline, Pipeline Interprovincial (Québec) Inc." of June, 1993 by F.G. Bercha and Associates (Alberta) Limited of Calgary. The review was carried out by a panel of three IRR members who were asked to assess the validity and the appropriateness of the risk analysis methods, the assumptions, the results and the conclusions, considering both quantitative and qualitative aspects. The use of the panel format was quite valuable and lead to a breadth of analysis that would not have been possible were only one person responsible for the review task.

Current Directions in Environmental Risk Assessment and Management

February 1999 ($30.00)

The purpose of this publication is to promote a better understanding of the various frameworks for conducting environmental risk assessment in Canada and to identify current and future issues and challenges in environmental risk assessment from the perspectives of regulators, academics, industry representatives and consultants. It is intended to serve both as a resource document and to promote dialogue on these important topics. The novel contributions of this publications are: (i) it provides a comparison of environmental risk assessment frameworks used in Canada; (ii) it provides an inventory of the current situation and future trends for use of environmental risk assessment in regulatory decision making across provincial/territorial and federal jurisdictions in Canada; (iii) it identifies key issues in environmental risk assessment and management that Canada will face over the next 1-5 years.

Development of a Risk Based Procedure for Evaluating Transport of Dangerous Goods Policies

June 1991 ($15.00)

This report estimates the risk of transporting liquefied petroleum gas and gasoline by truck and by rail using a computer model called RISKMOD. The report describes how, in order to estimate objective risk, the sequence of events that takes place when dangerous goods incidents occur during transportation can be modelled using a combination of frequency and consequence oriented analysis steps. Canadian data on accident rates, fault rates and accident and spill consequences are emphasized.

Economic and Environmental Implications of the Hazardous Waste Trade on West Africa

June 1991 ($10.00)

This policy report presents the results of an investigation of the potential environmental and economic impacts to developing communities from indiscriminate disposal of hazardous wastes; the special focus is on West Africa. The investigation has been designed to provide the necessary tools to help answer the question: "should the toxic/hazardous waste trade be encouraged, and under what terms or circumstances should it be approved?

Environmental Health Risk in Ontario: Measurement & Data Issues

November 1997 ($10.00)

This report reviews and makes recommendations on the management of environmental health risks in Ontario. Its stated scope is purposely restricted to low level contaminants which are either solid, liquid, gas or radiation and which have an adverse effect on the health of any person. The report recommends establishing regulations, performance and priority criteria on the basis of health risk, rather than the mass approach currently in place. It provides a good description of the information that would be required for such an approach. It also describes the deficiencies in current hazard source and measurement databases that require rectifying before a risk based management system could be implemented.

Environmental Health Risk Management: A Primer for Canadians

October 2000 ($35.00)

This project was inititated in response to a need for a resource document to clarify the concepts, process, and tools of environmental risk management in Canada. The Primer aims to provide health and safety managers, environmental health decision-makers and public health practitioners with an overview of the basic theory and practice of environmental risk management based on the Canadian Standards Association risk management framework.

Environmental Impacts of Household Battery Use in Canada

Jan. 1997 ($10.00)

This report updates the 1991 estimates of metals entering the municipal waste stream from waste batteries provided in the 1992 study Assessing the Environmental Effects of Disposal Alternatives for Household Batteries. The present study surveyed Canadian household battery manufacturers to collect information on battery composition and Canadian consumer purchases from 1992 to 1995. Trends in battery composition and sales since 1991 were analyzed to determine changes in the amount of metals entering the municipal waste stream from waste batteries.

Exposure Assessment of Airborne Contaminants at the Elk Falls Pulp Mill: Phase II

Oct. 1996 ($20.00)

This report is an extension of the previous Elk Falls emission study. Previous exposure assessment was expanded to include Co-planar PCBs, PAHs and PM10. The report also provides a probabilistic version of the previous deterministic dioxin and exposure assessment.

Exposure Assessment of Airborne Dioxins and Furans Emitted from the EDC/VCM Facility at the Dow Chemical Canada Fort Saskatchewan Site

March 1995 ($20.00)

In March 1995, Dr. John Hicks of Ryerson Polytechnic University and Dr. Steve McColl of the University of Waterloo completed an "Exposure Assessment of Airborne Dioxins and Furans Emitted from the EDC/VCM Facility at the Dow Chemical Canada Fort Saskatchewan Site" to determine the potential for human health effects on populations in the vicinity of the plant. Exposure was estimated from dispersion modelling and consideration of background exposure from environmental and food sources. The IRR report also discusses the difficulties in assessing human health effects given the controversy regarding dioxin toxicity. The exposure resulting from the plant was compared to background sources and regulatory exposure standards.

Health and Safety Policies: Guiding Principles for Risk Management

Aug. 1993 ($10.00)

This report, prepared by the Joint Committee of the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Academy of Engineering on Health and Safety, outlines three fundamental principles and a rational framework for the efficient management of safety and health in our society. The guiding principles presented in this report are directed at decision-makers in government, industry and other institutions responsible for the promotion of safety.

Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Dioxin and Furan Emissions at the Elk Falls Pulp Mill

April 1994 ($25.00)

This study evaluates the health risk to local populations from exposure to airborne emissions of dioxins and furans from the No. 5 power boiler at the Fletcher Challenge Canada pulpmill in Elk Falls, British Columbia. The study was co-funded by: Natural Resources Canada (Program on Energy Research and Development); Environment Canada; and Health Canada.

Information Gaps and Uncertainties in the IP/RP Compendium Documents and their Impact on Strategic Options

August 1999 ($30.00)

The purpose of this report is to describe the findings of an Expert Review Panel convened by the PM and Ozone Options Assessment Working Group (PM/03 OAWG) (a subcommittee of the Ontario Smog Plan Steering committee). The Panel was assembled to review two documents recently prepared by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE): 1) A Compendium of Current Knowledge on Fine Particulate Matter in Ontario, and 2) Strategic Options to Address the Fine Particulate Issue in Ontario. The Panel identified documentation gaps, i.e., critical pieces of available information that were not included in the Compendium Documents, and scientific uncertainties, i.e., areas where complete understanding has not yet been determined. The Panel also recommended priority areas for further research to improve Ontario's capability to provide strong and balanced environmental policy on the issue of PM. CRESTech (Centre for Research in Earth and Space Technology) and NERAM formed a technical secretariat to convene and support the interdisciplinary Exert Panel of Ontario academics to undertake the study.

Inuit Perspectives on Environmental Contaminants.
Report on Avativut/Illusivut Risk Management Workshops in Nunavik and Labrador

January 1996 ($25.00)

This report contains the proceedings of Risk Management workshops held in Kuujuaq, Quebec and Nain, Labrador in January 1995 conducted as part of the Eco-Research Project on Health and Environmental Contaminants in Nunavik and Labrador. The workshops involved Inuit community leaders and residents, local and regional organizations, and researchers studying the health, social, economic and risk management impacts of contaminants in the North.

The purpose of the workshops was to determine Inuit concerns regarding ecosystem contaminants, and other environment and health issues, to guide the development of the research and communication activities of the project.

The report describes community and regional environmental health concerns of the Inuit in Nunavik and Labrador; summarizes the sub-projects of the research program and documents community questions and concerns related to the projects and the overall research program. The report concludes with the researchers' identification of possible project adaptations.

Joint Rail Use: A Risk Analysis and Risk Assessment Guide

June 1998 ($15.00)

The purpose of this guide is to assist decision makers in performing preliminary risk analysis and assessment of a joint operation situation on their own system. It is expected that it would be used prior to and in support of a decision to undertake the development of firm proposals, discussions, and approvals for joint running operations. The preliminary risk analysis and assessment would provide one input into the final design and arrangements for joint running operations. This guide is developed as a part of the Panel A-17, FY'96 project of the Transit Cooperation Research Program of the Transportation Research Board, National Research Council and is published in TCRP Report 52.

Managing Climate Change Risk

April 1999 ($25.00)

The purpose of this report is to propose an effective and practical risk management framework to support decision making for adaptation to regional climate change impacts in Canada. The ultimate objective is to reduce risks at a reasonable cost using a systematic and broadly acceptable public process.

A national assessment of the basic climate change risks has recently been completed (Environment Canada, 1998) and it is now appropriate to "shift gears" from a scientific identification mode to a decision analysis mode, as well as shifting from a Global climate change perspective to a regional climate change and impact perspective.

Marine Safety Analysis and Functional Evaluation (SAFE) System: Development of the Risk Analysis Module (RAM)

September 1995 ($10.00)

This report "Development of the Risk Analysis Module (RAM)" documents the risk analysis and risk management aspects of the SAFE project undertaken by Canarctic Shipping Company Ltd. and IRR for the Canadian Coast Guard. This report presents the concept of SAFE and the approach taken in RAM. The functional requirements of RAM are presented in detail, including an example application of RAM to a specific marine issue. The RAM module uses the latest in computer technology (including a Geographical Information System) to support a consistent, systematic and structured approach to policy evaluation and to demonstrate accountability by determining how well programs and regulations are working.

Methodological Review of the Ship Safety Study

January 1991 ($15.00)

A panel of IRR members reviewed the methodology used by Transport Canada in the risk assessment of the Western Region Coast Guard's Ship Safety Program. The report contains a summary of the panel's findings and examples of an alternative method of presenting risk estimates that uses the Zurich Hazard Analysis method.

Multi-Stakeholder Negotiation in Environmental Controversies: The Case of Antisapstain Chemicals in the British Columbia Wood Products Industry

January 1992 ($15.00)

The report documents the background, process, outcome and implications of a new approach used to resolve an environmental controversy in British Columbia concerning antisapstain chemicals used to control the growth of mold on freshly-cut lumber in the wood products industry. This approach resulted in a consensus agreement among the major stakeholder interests (labour, industry, government, environmental groups) and provides an important case-study of toxic chemical risk management in Canada.

Precautionary Principle and Children's Health

June 2001 ($30.00)

This report presents the proceedings from a multistakeholder workshop on precautionary principle and children’s health. Through papers and documentation of case study discussions the report captures the range of perspectives from representatives of industry, regulators, academia and public interest groups on the use of precautionary principle as a tool for decision-making on children’s environmental health issues. The proceedings will provide readers with an understanding of current issues and concerns in defining and implementing the precautionary principle in Canada and the relationship between precautionary principle and existing risk management frameworks. The report is a timely contribution to the debate on the implementation of precautionary principle in Canada.

Preliminary Characterization of Agricultural Dioxin Exposure

April 1997 ($10.00)

The modelling study described in the report "Preliminary Characterization of the Exposure of Dairy and Beef Cattle to Dioxins and Furans Emitted from the TOX and THROX Stacks Located at the Dow Chemical EDC/VCM Facility in Fort Saskatchewan" is intended as a 'scoping' study in which the authors provide the first-approximation predicted values for agricultural exposure to dioxins and furans from the Dow facility.

Preliminary Review of the U.S. EPA Standards for the Use and Disposal of Sewage Sludge Final Rule Document

April 1993 ($15.00)

This report, commissioned by Agriculture Canada, is a preliminary evaluation of the risk assessment methodology used by the U.S. EPA in determining standards for metal content in sewage sludge. The evaluation identifies and discusses the extra-scientific assumptions underlying the Final Rule and makes recommendations for Agriculture Canada's policies regarding sewage sludge. The content of the Final Rule document is summarized in an Appendix.

Review of Environmental and Health Risk Assessment by the Ontario and Canadian Governments of Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes Basin, Phase One

June 1992 ($15.00)

This report, commissioned by the International Joint Commission, reviews the ways the Canadian and Ontario governments assess risks to human health and the environment posed by toxic substances in the Great Lakes Basin. The report examines the circumstances under which risk assessment is initiated, the methods of risk assessment used, and how risk information is communicated to the public.

Review of the Transportation Risk Assessment Submitted by Chem-Security (Alberta) Ltd. for Proposed Expansion of Swan Hills Waste Treatment Centre

November 1991 ($10.00)

A panel of IRR members reviewed the Transportation Risk Assessment submitted by Chem Security (Alberta) Ltd. in their application to expand the Swan Hills Special Waste Treatment Centre. This review was carried out for the Swan Hills Expansion Review Coalition (SHERC) to assess the accuracy of the risk levels presented in the proponent's report. The report evaluates the methodology and validity of the study, discusses the study's deficiencies, and reports on the risks of the proposed transportation.

Risk Analysis of Marine Navigation Aids: Comparison of WAMS and MNSS Results

May 1997 ($10.00)

This report presents a comparison of estimated minimum channel width required to provide safe navigation, under given conditions from the WAMS and MNSS Systems. The 99.9% Pre-processor of the Marine Navigation Safety System (MNSS) Model was used to calculate the MNSS results. The WAMS results were calculated from the data the Waterways Analysis Management System (WAMS) as published in the U.S. Coast Guard document "Short Range Aids to Navigation Systems Design Manual for Restricted Waterways" (Smith et at., 1985). A general description of the approach used to compare the two systems is provided as well as details of the calculation method.

Risks of LPG Ship Movement on the St. Lawrence

April 1991 ($10.00)

This report summarises and presents the risks, estimated by Concord Scientific, for the transportation of LPG in the St. Lawrence River. The objective of the institute's study was to use recognised techniques of risk communication to interpret and illustrate the risks estimated by Concord. The aim of the report is to present the risks in a clear, factual and unbiased way so that people might understand the risks and then be able to assess and evaluate these risks for themselves.

Safety Productivity Forum Proceedings

September 1992 ($20.00)

This report contains the papers presented at the Safety Productivity Forum held in Toronto on May 12-13, 1992. The purpose of the forum was to provide an opportunity for individuals involved in various safety inspection and enforcement programs to review and discuss the application and impact of risk management approaches on these activities. Examples of risk-based approaches recently implemented in the areas of food safety by Agriculture Canada and safety of devices by the Ontario Ministry of Consumer and Commercial Relations are discussed.

Stategies for Clean Air and Health

July 2005 ($45.00)

This report is the fourth in a series of five NERAM Colloquia, and was organized jointly with the AIRNET European Network on Air Pollution and Health and the Rome E Health Authority to identify directions for air quality policy development and research priorities to improve population health. Two hundred air quality scientists, policymakers, and representatives from industry and non-governmental organizations from 22 countries convened in Rome, Italy on November 5-7, 2003 to exchange perspectives on the interface betwen science and policy relating to air pollution health effects, air quality modeling, clean air technology, and risk management policy tools. The conference was sponsored by US EPA, Health Canada, Ontario Ministry of Environment, Shell International, the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute, the European Commission, and the Rome E Health Authority.



Study on Transportation Accidents Risk Analysis and Assessment

November 1989 ($15.00)

This study, performed in association with R.S. Wallace and Associates Ltd., for the Ontario Ministry of Transportation Aviation office, examines risks in the aviation industry in Canada and evaluates the public's perceptions of these risks. The study is exploratory in nature and where possible the detailed dimensions of aviation risk are documented and further useful analysis identified.

Synthesis of Reviews of Risk Assessment Methods of the United States and Canada and of the Jurisdictions Around the Great Lakes, Phase Two

Sept. 1992 ($15.00)

This report provides a synthesis of Phase One of this contract (a review of the risk assessment process in Canada) and Dr. Fisher's review of the risk assessment process in the United States.

Transportation Risk Assessment for the Alberta Special Waste Management System

April 1994 ($30.00)

This report documents a comprehensive, probabilistic risk assessment study done for the Alberta Special Waste Management System to compare the changes in risk between the existing market plan as approved by the Natural Resources Conservation Board of Alberta in 1992 and the proposed market plan which involves out-of-Province wastes, longer haul distances, travel at night, etc. The report format employs some innovative risk-communication techniques. The consequence analysis was done by EnviroTech Research Ltd. of the University of Western Ontario.

What is the Risk: Consensus Report from the International Conference on the Risk of Transporting Dangerous Goods

February 1993 ($10.00)

This report documents the small group discussions and consensus testing process from the corridor exercise conducted as part of the International Consensus conference on the Risks of Transporting Dangerous Goods, held April 6-8, 1992 in Toronto. The purpose of the corridor exercise was to provide a well defined transportation problem for analysis in order to examine the sources of variability in the risk estimates. The exercise involved the bulk transport of chlorine, LPG and gasoline by road and rail over two designated routes. Seven agencies in six countries participated in this exercise.

Workshop Summary Report: Municipal Solid Waste Management: Making Decisions in the Face of Uncertainty

April 1991 ($8.00)

This report presents a summary of a series of small group discussions held at the 1990 conference of the same title. The workshops were attended by staff from municipal, provincial and federal governments, consultants, waste management business representatives, citizens groups, academics and interested individuals. The report identifies issues of concern, local experiences and various points of view on the various solid waste management options. and concludes with recommendations for a comprehensive approach to solid waste management.

John Shortreed 519-885-4027
Last Updated: January 13, 2009
© IRR-NERAM 2003