NERAM COLLOQUIUM III
Strategies for Clean Air and Health
November 5-7, 2003
Conference Statement Appendix
Health Effects, (J. Samet, D. Krewski)
Quality Modelling, (N. Reid, P. Misra, M. Amann,
Tools, (A. Rabl, J. Nathwani, M. Pandey,
Options, (L. van Bree, J. Vandenberg,
General Comments on Background Documents
Green & Armstrong
to Recording Expert Opinion
2ndAIRNET ANNUAL CONFERENCE/ NERAM
November 5 – 7, 2003,Santo Spirito Hospital, Rome, Italy
Examine health effective
policy options for air quality management in North America
and Europe based on currently available scientific information.
The meeting will be of interest to air quality policy makers,
air quality managers at the federal/provincial/state and municipal
levels, industry and business representatives, and researchers
and representatives from academia, government agencies and
the private sector.
Canadian Petroleum Products
EC DG Research/AIRNET
Rome E Health Authority
Ontario Ministry of the Environment
For more information: http://airnet.iras.uu.nl
The Conference will promote exchange of knowledge between
North America and Europe on technical, scientific and management
issues to identify policy opportunities for air quality improvement,
through the presentation of synthesis papers, facilitated
poster presentations, and break-out group discussions. The
meeting will provide a platform for identifying innovative
management approaches and future research needs to further
support policy decisions.
The task of identifying strategies for effective air quality
management to improve human health and the environment involves
a number of scientific, technical and economic considerations.
While lack of full scientific certainty is a limitation to
identifying optimal policy interventions, lessons have been
learned from experience and research to guide health effective
air quality policy development and implementation. The conference
will address the following specific questions:
• What does health effects research tell us about the
risks from air pollution, including who should be protected,
and from what sources or components of the air pollution mixture?
• In addition to scientific evidence, what are the key
considerations for public policy development, for example
the role of scientific uncertainty, public risk perception,
requirements for risk communication etc.
• What sources contribute to risks to public health,
and what methods are available to link sources to exposures?
How can air quality modeling inform local, regional and continent
wide air management strategies?
• What are the expected future benefits of existing
policies for pollution reduction for cars, power plants,
• What are the advantages and disadvantages of alternative
policy approaches (e.g. NAAQS, limit values, best available
• What are currently the most prominent research priorities
to improve air quality management and is the science community
targeting these priorities?
This joint meeting of the NERAM International Colloquium
Series and the AIRNET European Thematic Network on Air Pollution
and Health is the first of its kind to provide an integrated
review of the best available information to inform clean air
strategies based on:
1. Exposure and health effects,
2. Air quality modeling over time and space, and
3. Strategies for risk management and risk reduction including
technology approaches, emissions trading, and policy analysis
tools such as cost-benefit analysis, and communication of
risks and uncertainties.
The joint character of the meeting provides a unique opportunity
to contrast and synergize research findings and management
approaches in Europe and North America.
CONFERENCE PLANNING COMMITTEE
Bert Brunekreef, Utrecht University
Rick Burnett, Health Canada
Lorraine Craig, NERAM
Bart Croes, California Air Resources Board
Francesco Forastiere, Epidemiology,
Rome E Health Authority
Peter van den Hazel, International Society of Doctors for
Daniel Krewski, McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk
Michal Krzyzanowski, WHO European Centre for Environment
Robert Maynard, UK Department of Health
Ken Ogilvie, Pollution Probe
Jonathan Samet, Johns Hopkins University
Callum Searle, European Commission – Research Directorate-General
John Shortreed, NERAM
Tony Clarke-Sturman, Shell International Petroleum Company
James J. Sloan, University of Waterloo
John Vandenberg, USEPA
Leendert van Bree, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency
Robert Willes, Cantox Environmental Inc.
Martin Williams, UK Department of Environment
Andre Zuber, European Commission – Environment Directorate-General
to download entire document or click on the following individual
Page and ISBN page
L. Craig, D. Krewski, J. Shortreed, and J. Samet
For Clean Air And Health Conference Statement
L. Craig, D. Krewski, J. Shortreed, J. Samet, and L. van Bree
PART I - Ambient Air Quality
sources of PM2.5 in cities influenced by regional transport
J.R. Brook, R.L. Poirot, T.F. Dann, P.K.H. Lee, C.D. Lillyman,
and T. Ip
the intra-urban variability of ambient traffic pollution in
M. Jerrett, M.A. Arain, P. Kanaroglou, B. Beckerman, D.
Crouse, N.L. Gilbert, J.R. Brook, N. Finkelstein,
and M.M. Finkelstein
fine and ultrafine particles measurements in Rome, Italy
A. Marconi, G. Cattani, M. Cusano, M. Ferdinandi, M. Inglessis,
G. Viviano, G. Settimo, and F. Forastiere
iron and steel industry and waste incinerators on human exposure
to dioxins, PCBs and heavy metals: results of a cross-sectional
study in Belgium
S. Fierens, H. Mairesse, J-F. Heilier, J-F. Focant, G.
Eppe, E. De Pauw, and A. Bernard
PART II - Health Effects
associated with exposure to ambient air pollution
J. Samet, and D. Krewski
air pollution and population health: Overview of health effects
posters presented at the 2003 AIRNET/NERAM Conference
D. Krewski, and D. Rainham
Sources of uncertainty
in calculating mortality and morbidity attributable to air
T. Sahsuvaroglu, and M. Jerrett
pollution and respiratory emergency visits at Paediatric Unit,
Reggio Emilia, Italy
E. Bedeschi, C. Campari, S. Candela, N. Caranci, G. Frasca,
G. Collini, C. Galassi, and M.A. Vigotti
pollution and emergency visits for respiratory complaints
in Pisa, Italy
M.A. Vigotti, F. Chiaverini, P. Biagiola, and G. Rossi
of exhaled nitric oxide in children exposed to low levels
of ambient ozone
M. Nickmilder, C. de Burbure, S. Carbonnelle, X. Dumont,
A. Derouane, and A. Bernard
PART III - Mechanism of Effect
antioxidant status and NO2 inhalation: a selenium supplementation
study in rats
C.Y. de Burbure, J-F. Heilier, J. Nève, A. Becker,
C. Albrecht, P.J.A. Borm, J. Gromadzinska, W. Wasowicz, K.
Rydzynski, and A.M. Bernard
aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) –
biomarker of exposure to
O. Beskid, B. Binkova, Z. Dusek, P. Rössner, I. Kalina,
T.A. Popov, P.B. Farmer, R.J. Srám
PART IV - Policy Tools and Approaches
modelling for policy development
N. Reid, P.K. Misra, M. Amman, and J. Hales
Tools and strategies for improving
policy responses to the risk of air pollution
A. Rabl, J. Nathwani, M. Pandey, and F. Hurley
Analysis of PM2.5 using
the environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP)
K. Davidson, A. Hallberg, D. McCubbin, and B. Hubbell
Developing risk-based priorities
for reducing air pollution in urban settings in Ukraine
M. Brody, J. Caldwell, and A. Golub
Air quality improvements with European environment policies:
SO2 case study in a coastal region in Portugal
M.C. Pereira, R.C. Santos, and M.C.M. Alvim-Ferraz
impact assessment of PM10 exposure in the city of Caen, France:
Is eliminating air pollution peaks enough?
P. Glorennec, and F. Monroux
PART V - Science-Policy Issues
Fine particles: From scientific
uncertainty to policy strategy
Strategy: An ENGO perspective on the science-policy interface
the gap between science and policy on air pollution and health
- The AIRNET enterprise
L. van Bree, N. Fudge, J.T. Tuomisto, and B. Brunekreef
Perspectives on the Science - Policy Interface
Ken Ogilvie, Pollution Probe
Barriers and Gaps to Information Effectiveness at the Science-Policy
David Briggs, Imperial College London
Parallel Sessions - (Complete
file of available Abstracts)
Paper Session 1: Health
H.R. Anderson, WHO Task Force – Estimation
of risk coefficients for health impact assessment of ambient air
pollution in Europe.
Ferran Ballester, Valencian School of Studies
for Health – Air pollution & cardiovascular admission
short-term relationship in 15 Spanish cities:
Results within the Emecas Project.
Annelie Behndig, University Hospital –
Diverging airway inflammatory responses to diesel exhaust exposure
in health and asthmatic subjects with and without inhaled corticosteroid
Aaron Cohen, Health Effects Institute
– Measuring the health impacts of actions to improve air quality:
The HEI research program.
Paper Session 2: Tools
Fintan Hurley, Institute of Occupational Medicine
– Issues in estimating the public health impacts of ambient
air pollution - what are the morbidity impacts that matter, and
what are the main sources of uncertainty?
Pierpaolo Mudu, WHO ? Hearts project:
Building a tool for the assessment and integration of health impacts
from urban transport systems.
Brian Miller, Institute of Occupational Medicine
– Developments in impact assessment for chronic effects on
L. Gephart, ExxonMobil Petroleum and Chemical
– Estimating the health impact of ground level ozone attributed
to VOC emissions: An alternative science-based approach.
Paper Session 3: Modelling/Case Studies
Michael Jerrett, McMaster University –
Modeling the intra-urban variability of ambient traffic pollution
in Toronto, Canada.
Markus Amann, IIASA – An integrated
assessment of air pollution control strategies for Europe.
Jeff Brook, Environment Canada –
Windsor/Quebec City case study.
AIR POLICY TOOLS
R. Cox et al., IPIECA – The
IPIECA urban air quality management approach.
K. Davidson et al., Abt Associates Inc.– BenMAP, The
environmental benefits mapping and analysis program: A policy analysis
tool for estimating health benefits from air quality improvements.
L. Gephart, ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences,
Inc. - Estimating the
health-based economic impacts of ground level ozone attributed VOC
emissions: An alternate science-based approach.
S.S. Jensen et al., National Environmental Research
Institute – Impact assessment
system for urban air pollution and population exposure.
R.S. McColl et al., University of Waterloo – Health
Effects Indicator Decision Index (HEIDI): A risk-based tool for ranking
abatement of air pollutant release inventories according to expected
local and regional health effects.
M. Nicolich, J. Gamble, ExxonMobil Biomedical
Sciences, Inc. – Proposed
framework for an effectiveness analysis for PM reduction.
R. San José et al., Technical University
of Madrid – A tool to
evaluate in real-time and forecasting mode the air quality impact
of industrial emissions.
R. Torfs et al., VITO – No
regret policy measures for particulate matter from traffic sources.
AIR QUALITY MODELLING
D. Briggs, SAHSU, Imperial College London - Air
pollution modeling for support to policy on health and environmental
risks in Europe
APPROACHES TO AIR QUALITY
P. Berry, Health Canada – Assessing
and adapting to the health effects of climate change in Canada.
HEALTH EFFECTS: EPIDEMIOLOGY
P. Aalto, et al., HEAPSS - Aerosol number concentration
measurements in five European cities during HEAPSS.
L. Bayer-Oglesby et
University of Basel – Swiss
cohort study on air pollution and lung diseases in adults (SAPALDIA
2): methods, participation
and air pollution development.
E. Bedeschi et al., ASL di Reggio Emilia
– Urban air pollution and respiratory emergency visits at
paediatric unit, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
P. Glorennec, Ecole Nationale de la Santé Publique – Health
impact assessment of exposures to PM10 in the city of Caen, France.
U. Gehring et al. GSF
of Epidemiolgy -
Long-term Effects of Air Pollution & Mortality - The German
Cohort on Mortality & Air
Pollution in women (GECOMO - Air).
C. Guastadisegni et al., Istituto Superiore
di Sanita – Oxidative
potential of environmental particulate matter from sites with
varying traffic density: Correlation between antioxidants depletion
and arachidonic acid release.
J. Heinrich, et al., GSF National National Research
Center for Environment and Health - Bitterfeld
T. Lanki et al. Department of Environmental
Health, KTL, Kuopio, Finland -
Air pollution and hospitalisations for first myocardial infarction (MI) in the
S. Loft, Institute of Public Health, University
of Copenhagen -
Studies of Air Pollution and Health
in Denmark 20
P. Michelozzi, Epidemiology ASL RM/E -
PHEWE - Assessment and Prevention
of acute Health Effects of Weather conditions
L. Modig et al., Umeå University – Health
impact of ozone levels in Sweden – A national assessment
Mücke, WHO - APHEIS:
Influence of vehicular traffic in health impact assessment of
M. Neuberger et al., University of Vienna – Acute
effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases in Austria.
M. Nickmilder et al., Catholic University of Louvain – Lung
inflammation in children with short term exposure to ambient
ozone: Evidence of a threshold.
S. O’Connell, I. Matthews, University of Wales – An
epidemiological assessment of individual’s biological uptake
of particulate air pollution and related health effects.
T. Sahsuvaroglu, M. Jerrett, McMaster University – Sources
of uncertainty in calculating mortality and morbidity attributable
to air pollution.
M.A.Vigotti et al., Epidemiologia
Ambientale, Universita' di Pisa -
Urban air pollution and emergency room visits for respiratory
H. Walton, Department of
Health, UK – Is
there a threshold for associations between ozone concentrations and
C. Yap, I. Beverland et al., University
of Strathelyde – Health
effects of long-term exposure to air pollutants in Scotland.
HEALTH EFFECTS: EXPOSURE
T. Bellander, M. Krusa, National
Institute of Environmental Medicine,
Environmental Health, Stockholm County Council,
Factors influencing individual
Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure in Stockholm
Fierens et al., Catholic University of Louvain
– Impact of iron and steel
industry and waste incinerators on human exposure to dioxins, PCBs
and heavy metals: results of
a cross-sectional study in Belgium.
T. Götschi et al., ECRHS II -
Correlations between Surrogates of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution (PM2.5 mass,
Sulphur, NO2, black Smoke, Silicon) across 21 European Centres
D. Lolova et al., National Center of Hygiene,
Medical Ecology & Nutrition – Ambient
air pollution and children’s exposure
to lead & cadmium in a smelter region in Bulgaria.
HEALTH EFFECTS: MECHANISM OF EFFECT
A. Bernard et al., Catholic University of Louvain
– Lung hyperpermeability and asthma prevalence in schoolchildren:
unexpected associations with the attendance of indoor chlorinated
A. Blomberg et al., University Hospital
– Clara cell protein (CC16) as a biomarker for ozone exposure
E. Brits et al., VITO – Evaluation
of the mutagenicity of PM10 and PM2.5 collected in an industrial
area of Antwerp.
A.Cebulska-Wasilewska, A. Panek et
al., Department of Radiation and Environmental Biology -
Influence of the PAH on the DNA
Damage Detected in Unexposed and Occupationally
Exposed Donors from Košice
A.Cebulska-Wasilewska, A. Panek et al., Department of Radiation
Influence of Occupational Exposure to PAHs on Lymphocytes susceptibility to the
induction of DNA damage (sampling in Sofia)
C.Y. de Burbure et al., UCL – Lung
permeability, antioxidant status and NO2 inhalation: a selenium
supplementation study in rats.
A. Gábelová et.al. Laboratory
of Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis -
EXPAH: Risk assessment of the air pollution mixtures - 'in vitro study'
B. Lagerkvist, B. Forsberg et al., Environmental & Occupational
Medicine – Pulmonary
epithelial integrity in children – relationship to swimming
pool attendance and ambient ozone exposure.
A. Peters, et
Study Group -
Air Pollution and Inflammatory Response
in Myocardial Infarction Survivors: Gene-environment interaction
in a high risk group (AIRGENE)
R. Singh, et al., Cancer Biomarkers
Leicester, UK -
EXPAH: Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs) in environmental pollution
on exogenous and endogenous DNA damage – oxidative damage
R.J. Sram, Inst. of Exprimental Medicine AS CR & Health
Bohemia, Prague -
EXPAH: Chromosomal Aberrations by Fluorescence In
Situ Hybridization (FISH)-
Biomarker of Exposure to Carcinogenic PAHs
R.J. Sram, Inst. of Exprimental Medicine AS CR & Health
Bohemia, Prague -EXPAH: Effects of Polycyclic
Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Environmental Pollution on exogenous and endogenous
DNA damage - Czech cohort
M. Taronna, P.A. Bertazzi et al., Università degli
Studi di Milano – Short-term
exposure to PM2.5, PM1 and blood coagulation in humans
HEALTH EFFECTS: PARTICLE CHEMISTRY
I. Beverland et al., University of Strathclyde
– The metal content
of airborne particles: Application to
S.A. Bremner et al., St. George’s
Hospital Medical School – Particle species and daily
mortality and admissions in the West Midlands, UK.
F. Cassee et al., RIVM – Qualitative
differences in particulate air pollution at different locations
B. De Berardis et al., Laboratory of Environmental
Hygiene – Seasonal
trend of the physico-chemical characteristics of PM2.1: A study
by SEM/EDX and XPS in an urban area of Rome.
R. Pozzi et al., Laboratory of Environmental
Hygiene – Effects of Rome winter urban air particles
on monocyticmacrophagic raw 264.7 cell line.
Alvim- Ferraz et al., Universidade do Porto – European
directives for air quality: Analysis of the new limits in comparison
with asthmatic symptoms in children.
M. Brody et al., US EPA – Developing
risk-based priorities for reducing air pollution in urban settings
Q. Chiotti, Pollution Probe – Making
the linkage between air issues and human health: An ENGO perspective
on sustainable transportation policy in central Ontario.
B. Forsberg et al., Umeå University–
Predicted health impact of
congestion pricing in Stockholm – a local assessment.
G. Granville, CASA – Alberta's
PM and ozone management framework.
M.C. Pereira et al., Universidade do Porto
– Air quality improvements with European environment policies:
SO2 case study in a coastal region in Portugal.
O. Raaschou-Nielsen et al. Institute of Cancer
Epidemiology, Denmark -
Health Effects of PM in Denmark - Do particle filters
on heavy-duty vehicles
solve the problem?
K. Samadashvili, -
Clean Air and Health Policy Considerations in South Caucasian Countries
P. Aarnio et al., National Public Health Institute
– Composition of and exposure to PM2.5 while commuting in
the metro and on the street.
M. Gerlofs-Nijland et al.,
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment
- HEPMEAP: In
vitro and in
vivo toxicity potency of ambient
fine and coarse PM across Europe: the influence of
traffic exhaust emissions.
V. Ilacqua, M. Jantunen, National Public
– Exposure to traffic
generated VOCs: Total exposure in urban environments and the specific
of exposure in street
A. Marconi et al, Italian National Institute
of Health – Two years
fine and ultrafine particles measurements in Rome, Italy.
N. Metz, BMW Group – PM10-Exposure
assessment for a city in Europe from 1950 to 2050.
K. Samadashvili, – Review
of the health effects from motor vehicle traffic in Tbilisi.
N. Fudge, AIRNET – AIRNET
Science-Policy Interface Work Group
G. Hoek, AIRNET –
AIRNET Epidemiology Work Group
N. Janssen, AIRNET – AIRNET Exposure Assessment Work Group
E. Sanderson et al., AIRNET – AIRNET
Health Impact Assessment Work Group
A. Totlandsdal, AIRNET – AIRNET Toxicology Work Group
A. Totlandsdal et al., AIRNET – AIRNET
J. Urbanus, CONCAWE – Trends in European Ambient Air Quality
J. Urbanus, CONCAWE – Trends
in European Automotive Fuels Quality and Emissions
N. Fudge, AIRNET – AIRNET
Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg – Some special problems of improving air quality strategies for Russian
cities. - View from the inside
A. Soares et al., Scientists for Health and
Research for Development (SHARED) – SHARED
Resources project: the sharingpoint.
E.M.A.L. Rameckers, European
Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients' Association – Communication on Health Risks of Air Pollution